The 'Pubmed' links provide a link to the articles' abstract provided by the US national library of medicine.

Adler JN, Hughes LA, Vivilecchia R and Camargo CA Jr. (1998) Effect of skin pigmentation on pulse oximetry accuracy in the emergency department Academic Emergency Medicine 5(10): 965-70 Pubmed

Amar D, Neidzwski J, Wald A and Finck A (1989) Fluorescent light interferes with pulse oximetry. J.Clin.Monit. 5(2):135-136 Pubmed

Attin M, Cardin S, Dee V, Doering L, Dunn D, Ellstrom K, Erickson V, Etchepare M, Gawlinski A, Haley T, Henneman E, Keckeisen M, Malmet M and Olson L (2002) An educational project to improve knowledge related to pulse oximetry American Journal of Critical Care 11(6): 529-34 Pubmed

Block FE Jr and Stahl D (1995) Interference in a pulse oximeter from a nerve stimulator. Journal of clinical monitoring 11(6):392-393 Pubmed

Hinkelbein J, Genzwuerker HV, Sogl R and Fiedler F (2007) Effect of nail polish on oxygen saturation determined by pulse oximetry in critically ill patients. Resuscitation 72(1):82-91 Pubmed

Howell M (2002) Pulse oximetry: an audit of nursing and medical staff understanding British Journal of Nursing 11(3): 191-7 Pubmed

Jay GD, Hughes L and Renzi FP (1994) Pulse oximetry is accurate in acute anemia from hemorrhage Annals of Emergency Medicine 24:1 (32-35) Pubmed

Moyle JTB (2002) Pulse Oximetry 2nd ed. BMJ books, London (BMJ books)

Ortiz FO, Aldrich TK, Nagel RL and Benjamin LJ (1999) Accuracy of pulse oximetry in sickle cell disease American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 159: 447-51 Pubmed Fulltext

Ralston AC, Webb RK and Runciman WB (1991) Potential errors in pulse oximetry. III: Effects of interferences, dyes, dyshaemoglobins and other pigments. Anaesthesia 46(4):291-295 Pubmed

Rodden AM, Spicer L, Diaz VA and Steyer TE (2007) Does fingernail polish affect pulse oximeter readings? Intensive and Critical Care Nursing 23(1):51-55 Pubmed

Smith GB and Poplett N (2002) Knowledge of aspects of acute care in trainee doctors Postgraduate Medical Journal 78: 335-8 Pubmed

Stoneham MD, Saville GM and Wilson IH (1994) Knowledge about pulse oximetry amoung medical and nursing staff The Lancet 344: (1339-42) Pubmed
page last modified: 01/01/2009
Pulse oximetry
What is oxygen saturation?
What does it mean?
How does it work?
  Poor signal
  Carbon dioxide
  Carbon monoxide
  Skin pigmentation
  Other issues

Oxygen transport

Full reference list
Contact me / feedback